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How we measure (Phones, DAPs, Amplifiers)

Nick Name: Golden Ears Registered Date: Aug 08, 2011, 04:22:58 IP ADRESS: *.56.123.5 Views: 72022





Introduction th the RMAA

At Golden Ears, the measurements of electrical - as opposed to acoustic - signals from cell phones, amplifiers, DACs, and audio players are conducted using a program called RMAA (RightMark Audio Analyzer). RMAA is a PC-based program which uses the PC’s sound card (specifically the Analog / Digital Converter) to analyze test signals.



RMAA (Rightmark Audio Analyzer)

RMAA (Rightmark Audio Analyzer)


RMAA is capable of analyzing many different characteristics, including the frequency response, noise level, dynamic range, total harmonic distortion (THD), intermodulation distortion (IMD) + noise, and stereo crosstalk.


These characteristics are similar to what a dedicated Audio Analyzer measures, the difference being that the processing is done by the PC’s processor in RMAA and the dedicated hardware in an Audio Analyzer.


Even between Audio Analyzers manufactured by the same company, the precision is often different between models - this is caused by the sensitivity of the internal equipment, just as the RMAA is dependent on the performance of the ADC inside the computer. Simply put, you cannot measure half an inch (small distortions) with a yardstick (clumsy equipment). This is because the ADC and the Analyzer themselves have a noise ceiling.





The range over which RMAA can measure signals depends on the setting of the sound card used. In case of regular studio equipments, 0dB is calibrated to be +4dBU(=1.228V = +1.78dBV), and for less powerful consumer devices 0dB is calibrated at -10dBV(=-7.78dBu = 0.316V).


The problem is that often, cellular phones or portable audio players aren’t even able to reach the -10 dBv mark. In cases like these, there are two options: the first is to commence with testing using an external amplifier to set the volume to 0 dB; the other option is to commence with testing as is with signals failing to reach a sufficient level.


The former offers a convenient way of testing, but the results may be affected by the performance of the amplifier used, and even worse, to varying degrees (as each device has different output levels) - this significantly undermines the accuracy of this method.


Thus, in such a situation, Golden Ears opts to commence testing as is, without further amplification, instead relying on increased sensitivity to noise (and thus a lower observable noise ceiling) by testing in 24-bit mode.




The output signal is usually connected to other devices (such as loudspeakers) - in most cases, the input impedance of the connected device is sufficiently large that there is no meaningful discrepancy in the actual sound quality and the quality measured in RMAA under a loadless test.


However, when the load only has a small impedance - such as in case of 1/8’’ jacks used with earphones, or small portable speakers - the loadless test is not a good indicator of what you will actually hear. The reason for this is because lower impedance draws an inversely large current - or is supposed to. In real life, often the device cannot properly supply this current due to various reasons (maximum allowed current transistors in the OP AMP, or the limit of the power supply).


Thus, the sound might clip or distort with a minute increase in volume when the device in question is paired with a small impedance, which cannot be detected with loadless testing alone - it is for this reason that Golden Ears conducts loaded tests in addition to the standard loadless test when necessary, with speakers or earphones plugged into the device being tested.




Hardware & Software








Comment '11'


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glance in a matter-of-course way at the banks of the river, though this is what I saw up to the bridge and a little beyond; say as far as the site of the soap-works. Both shores had a line of very pretty houses, low and not large, standing back a little way from the river; they were mostly built of red brick and roofed with tiles, and looked, above all, comfortable, and as if they were, so to say, alive, and sympathetic with the life of the dwellers in them. There was a continuous garden in front of them, going down to the water��s edge, in which the flowers were now blooming luxuriantly, and sending delicious waves of summer scent over the eddying stream. Behind the houses, I could see great trees rising, mostly planes, and looking down the water there were the reaches towards Putney almost as if they were a lake with a forest shore, so thick were the big trees; and I said aloud, but as if to myself �� ��Well, I��m glad that they have not built over Barn Elms.��

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علاج مرض الصدفية

2018.07.14 11:56
هي التهاب جلدي مزمن غير معدي، يظهر على شكل قشور ملونة بالفضي، تختلف أحجامها من علاج مرض الصدفية تصيب بعض الأماكن كالركبتين، الكوع، الفخذ، والسرة، كما يمكن أن تصيب الأماكن التناسلية من مرض الصدفية منطقة اسفل الظهر، الأظفار، تحت الإبط، و فروة الرأس، وتعتبر الصدفية أحد الأمراض التي تصيب المراهقين علاج مرض البرص و الشباب بصورة أكبر، و تؤدي الى حفر الجلد و تغيير اللون.



2018.07.14 12:39
تقدم شركه تنظيف بالبخار بجدة كافة خدمات التنظيف بالبخار للحصول على منزل متميز من شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة وهذا لأن الطرق التقليدية في التنظيف تسبب الكثير من الضرر للمفروشات وللكثير في المنزل من شركة تنظيف بالبخار بجدة هذا إلى جانب عدم ضمان التعقيم الكامل ولكن مع البخارؤ نضمن التطهير الصحي لكل قطعة بالمنزل بدون جراثيم أو فطريات من شركة نقل عفش بجدةإل جانب عامل الوقت فالتنظيف بالبخار لا يحتاج لأي وقت أو مجهود فهو يقضي على أصعب البقع في أسرع وقت لاننا نقدم افضل شركة نقل عفش بمكة الان وباقل الاسعار الرائعة التى لا احد يقدمة الان



2018.07.14 13:50
الأمور المهمة فى حياتنا هى النظافة لأنها تقي الإنسان من الامراض وتجعلنا نعيش فى جو صحي ونجد فى الآونة الأخيرة انتشار التنظيف بالبخار من شركة تنظيف بالبخار بمكة وبالفعل اثبت فعاليته ويعتقد بعض الناس ان له أضرار أكثر من الفوائد ولكن مع العلم اثبت انه من اهم امور النظافة فى إزالة الدهون والأوساخ لذلك ان الاميرة كلين اكبر شركة تنظيف بالبخار بمكةجاءت لكم بمفاجأة وهى خدمة من شركة تنظيف خزانات بمكة بأحدث الأجهزة لنخدم اهل مكة ونساعدهم فى تنظيف منازلهم او الفلل الخاصة بهم من شركة مكافحة حشرات بمكة وكذلك نقدم الخدمة للمؤسسات والشركات والمستشفيات فنحن افضل شركة نقل عفش بمكة التى نقدمة الان فى السعودية


2018.07.15 11:13
شركة تنظيف في دبي هي شركة لها خبرة عريقة وذات سمعة مميزة ومشهورة في عالم من شركة تنظيف بدبي النظافة شركة رائدة في مجال النظافة تعمل بأحدث الأساليب المتطورة والألات الحديثة في مجال النظافة من شركة تنظيف بدبي خلال فريق متميز من المحترفين ذو مهارة عالية ودرجة عالية من الدقة والإتقان من شركة تنظيف بدبي في تقديم خدمات النظافة الان وعلى اعلى مستوى ممكن من شركة تنظيف بدبي كما تحرص الشركة على تقديم خدمات متعددة في مكان واحد بناء على رغبات عملائها في توفير الوقت والمجهود والمال فهي توفر افضل خدمات النظافة من


2018.07.15 11:49
تعد شركة ويب السعودية شركة تصميم مواقع فى السعودية واحدة من افضل شركات تصميم مواقع الكترونية بالسعودية والرياض من افضل شركة تصميم مواقع فى الرياض حيث تقدم الشركة خدمات تصميم المواقع فى السعودية منذ وقت طويل ولنا الكثير من العملاء فى الرياض وجدة والدمام ومكة والطائف فى افضل شركة تسويق الكتروني في الرياض وجميع مدن المملكة من افضل شركة تصميم مواقع فى السعودية تقدم ويب السعودية تقنيات وخطط لتصميم مواقع الانترنت بالرياض بأسعار معقولة للشركات الصغيرة والمتوسطة من شركة تنظيف منازل بالكويت والكبيرة لمساعدتهم من افضل شركة تسويق الكتروني في السعودية فى الحصول على أقصى قدر من الانتشار والوصول لعملائهم من خلال شبكة الانترنت
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